What is CBN?

What is CBN? The history and biochemistry of Cannabinol

Cannabinol (CBN) is the oxidized, non-enzyme-based product of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and is found in large quantities, in long-term dried cannabis material. The acid form of CBN is also found in large quantities in the cannabis plant, but by decarboxylation (heat), the acid is converted to CBN.

The CBN was named in 1896, by Wood and his colleagues in Cambridge, but the correct structure was first defined in 1940 by Adams. Since only seven cannabinol-like lineages were listed in 2005, the list has been updated with four new phytocannabinoids, all of which share the CBN's flavored ring.

The concentration of CBN in cannabis products is defined by the product's age and storage conditions. It is a relatively small component of fresh cannabis because it is a product of THC oxidation. It is a weak CB1 and CB2 particle agonist, with only about 10% of THC's activity. It has potentially therapeutic properties against diseases in which the cannabinoid receptors are upregulated. Unlike other cannabinoids, CBN does not originate from cannabigerol (CBG), suggesting an alternative biosynthetic creation. When CBN was discovered, it was thought to be an inactive cannabis component, but subsequently it was found that the molecule has many therapeutic properties, primarily due to its activity with the cannabinoid receptors (CBs). CBN has a lower affinity for CB1 (Ki 211.2 nM) and CB2 (Ki 126.4 nM), and was declared inactive after tests on humans, but combined with THC, it was found to have a strong anesthetic effect.

Cannabinol receptor activity

As mentioned above, cannabinol (CBN), like tetrehydrocannabinol (THC), works with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but with the strongest affinity for CB2 receptors. While CBN has shown agonistic activity against the CB1 receptors, there are conflicting reports of its activity over the CB2 receptors.

Cannabinol has shown both direct and indirect agonistic properties, which are determined by how high the concentration has been in the test. These discrepancies are not only due to the concentration of the cannabinol, in the studies, but very likely also to the conformity stage of the receptors in the tissue. Cannabinol also affects biological targets outside the detendocannabinoid system. It is a potent agonist over TRPA1 ion channels, effectively blocks TRPM8 ion channels, desensitizes TRPA1 ion channels to activate the agonist allylisothiocyanate.

The biological activity of Cannabinol

As mentioned above, cannabinol (CBN), like tetrehydrocannabinol (THC), works with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but with the strongest affinity for CB2 receptors. While CBN has shown agonistic activity against the CB1 receptors, there are conflicting reports of its activity over the CB2 receptors.

Like other phytocannabinoids, cannabinol (CBN) is found to have relevant therapeutic properties against a large number of pharmaceutical targets. Like cannabigerol, CBN assumes keratinocyte prolongation, independent of the influence of cannabinoid receptors. CBN also shows anticonvusant, anti-inflammatory and potent effects against MethicillinResisten Staphylycopes Aureus (MRSA). Furthermore, CBN is also TRPV2 (high-threshold thermosensor) agonist, giving the possibility of treatment of burns. Furthermore, CBN can stimulate the recruitment of dormant mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow, which leads to bone growth and therefore enhances the defense against breast power, but only at very high concentration.

Therapeutic properties of Cannabinol

Due to the biological activities we mentioned above, cannabinol (CBN) has proven to be a useful treatment for a wide range of disorders.

Appetite stimulant

Due to the biological activities mentioned above, cannabinol (CBN) has proven to be useful as a treatment for a wide range of disorders.

Antibiotics

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections have become a very serious challenge for researchers around the world trying to find solutions to the bacteria that are antibiotic resistant. CBN, along with cannabigerol and cannabidiol, has been shown to be effective against antibiotic-resistant MRSA infections, suggesting that it may be a treatment for the life-threatening infections.

Potential medication for ALS patients

In 2005, one showed examination of CBN inhibited the symptoms of mice genetically designed to have the rodent version of Lou Gehrig syndrome. Lou Gehrig syndrome is a disease better known by the name Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). These findings indicate that CBN may be effective in relieving the symptoms of patients with degenerative motor neural disorders.

Pain reliever

According to a study released in 2002, the CBN has strong analgesic effects. Interestingly, CBN and THC are the only cannabinoids that fight pain by triggering endorphins and therefore causing blood vessels to relax, suggesting a link between them and CB receptor activity.

Anti-asthmatic

A 2003 study found that CBN stops allergy-related asthma in mice, possibly due to its strong anti-inflammatory properties. The hypothesis of the study is that cannabinoids achieve this by boosting the rodent's immune system, thereby alleviating the inflammation associated with the asthma attack.

numbing

CBN has a centrally controlled effect like tetrahydrocannabinols, though much less potent. However, studies suggest that CBN is possibly the most anesthetic of all cannabinoids, suggesting that CBN is a promising treatment for anxiety and stress-related disorders.

Potential medication for glaucoma

Together with tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN is a successful means of reducing ocular pressure leading to blindness in glaucoma patients. Perhaps by stressing the peripheral circulating system, the heart rate in patients can be reduced.

Synergy with natural terpenoids

Cannabinol activity has been shown to be enhanced by the concomitant administration of natural terpenoids. For example, the antibacterial activity of cannabinol is enhanced by Pinene (a terpenoid found in pine resin), while the anesthetic effects are enhanced by terpenoids such as Nerolidol and Myrcene. Nerolidol is found not only in the cannabis plant, but also in many other plants such as lemon balm, ginger, tetra, lavender or jasmine flowers. The myrtles are found naturally in cannabis, caraway, hops, thyme, parsley and foliage. Furthermore, CBN's anti-cancer activity is enhanced by the limonene, a terpenoid typically found in lemons.

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